Receipt date 11.02.2017 | Publication date 24.03.2017
V. N. Korotkov
Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1 Leninskiye gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia
Abstract. The modern forest in coniferous-broadleaf (hemiboreal) and broadleaf zones of Eastern Europe were formed as a result of long-term human impact. This led to the loss of natural forests and total dominance of secondary forests combined with monocultures of spruce and pine that were created in clearings, burned areas and fallow lands. The reforestation model that was common in the late XIX and first half of the XX century and that was focused on the establishment of monocultures commercially valuable coniferous tree species (spruce and pine) over large areas has resulted in declining biological diversity, increasing risk of tree damage due to outbreaks of pathogens and phytophagous insects, decreasing soil fertility, worsening soil and water conservation functions of forests. When restoring the prototypes of natural forests it is necessary to be guided by the modern concepts of synecology and model reconstructions of forest cover in pre-anthropogenic period that are briefly discussed in the paper. Based on the analysis of literature and research experience the author proposes the concept of natural forest restoration that can be applied primarily to the coniferous-broadleaf and broadleaf forests. The main goal is to create multiple-aged and polydominant near-natural forest ecosystems with higher resistance to fungal diseases and outbreaks of phytophagous insects. The field of concept application is specially protected natural areas (national parks, natural parks, wildlife sanctuaries, etc.), different categories of protective forests located within the zones of coniferous-broadleaf and broadleaf forests on the East European Plain. The formation of multiple-aged forests is possible when group felling and group-clear felling that largely imitate the natural gap-mosaic stand are implemented. The formation of new generations of trees is possible both due to the natural regeneration and the development of forest cultures. The article provides the full set of tree species for the development of forest cultures relating to the mixed coniferous-broadleaved forests, brief recommendations on the process of their creation, description of required care activities.
Key words: natural forest restoration, ecosystem functions, biological diversity, multispecies multiple-aged forest, mixed-species plantation, group felling, coniferous-broadleaf forest, broadleaf forest.
For citation: Korotkov V.N. Basic concepts and methods of restoration of natural forests in Eastern Europe. Russian Journal of Ecosystem Ecology. 2017;2(1). (In Russ.). Available from: https://doi.org/10.21685/2500-0578-2017-1-1