RUSSIAN BOTANICAL SOCIETY
RUSSIAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY
RUSSIAN FOUNDATION FOR BASIC RESEARCH
MOSCOW STATE PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY
PENZA STATE UNIVERSITY
PRIVOLZHSKY LES NATURE RESERVE
PENZA STATE MUSEUM OF REGIONAL STUDIES
PENZA REGION STATE ARCHIVE
RUSSIAN (WITH INTERNATIONAL PARTICIPATION) SCIENCE SCHOOL-CONFERENCE DEDICATED TO 115TH ANNIVERSARY OF A.A. URANOV
‘CURRENT CONCEPTS IN BIOSYSTEMS ECOLOGY AND THEIR ROLE IN SOLVING THE PROBLEMS OF NATURE PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT’
Russian (with International Participation) Science School-Conference ‘Current Concepts in Biosystems Ecology and Their Role in Solving the ProblemS of Nature Preservation and Management’ that was dedicated to 115th anniversary of prominent scientist A.A. Uranov took place in Penza, from May 10th to 14th, 2016, in Penza State University.
About 350 specialists from 67 Russian towns and cities took place in the conference. There were also guests from Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Danemark, and the United Kingdom. The participants were employees of 11 nature reserves, 6 national parks, 2 nature parks, university teachers, researchers and students, teachers and students from schools and colleges.
The conference participants were welcomed by A.D. Gulyakov, Rector of Penza State Unviersity, Candidate of Legal Sciences, I.I. Artemov, Vice-Rector for Research and Innovations, O.P. Surina, Director of the Institute of Teachers Education, candidate of physical and mathematical sciences.
A special display devoted to A.A. Uranov and Penza, the city where he was born and grew up, was set up in the local history museum of Penza.
The following reports and lectures were delivered at the conference:
– 4 reports on A.A.Uranov life and early scientific career in Penza, his contribution to the population-ontogenetic approach in Russia by T.A. Evnevich (State Archive of the Penza Region, Penza), A.A. Chistyakova and A.N. Cheburaeva (Penza State University, Penza), O.I. Evstigneeva (Bryansk Forest Nature Reserve), L.A. Zhukova (Mari State University, Yoshkar-Ola);
– 8 guest lectures on current concepts in synecology by O.V. Smirnova (Centre of Problems ofEcologyandForestProductivityat the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow), on participation of animals in ecosystemic carbon cycles by A.V. Tiunova (Institute of Ecology and Evolution Problems at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow), role of paleoecology and historical ecology in determining the causes of current state of the biosphere by M.V. Bobrovsky (Institute of Physical, Chemical, Biological Problems of Soil Studies, Pushchino), results and perspectives of the development of plant population biology by V.A. Cheremushkina (Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Novosibirsk ), population-ontogenetic approach in forest ecology by O.I. Evstigneeva (Bryansk Forest Nature Reserve), current issues in restoration of natural diversity in the forests of Russia and around the world by V.N. Korotkov (Moscow State University, Moscow), reasons and consequences of fir forests decomposition in European Russia by N.G. Ulanova (Moscow State University, Moscow), problems of special protected natural areas by A.N. Dobrolyubov (Privolzhskaya Forest-Steppe Nature Reserve, Penza),
– 84 section and 28 stand reports on conference topics.
Four master classes on methods of diversity analysis were conducted by L.G. Khanina (Institute of Mathematical Problems in Biology, branch of the Institute of Applied Mathematics at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino), on state of vegetation cover by T.Yu. Braslavsky (Centre of Problems of Ecology and Forest Productivity at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow), evaluation of succession state of communities and ecosystems by O.I. Evstigneev (Bryansk Forest Nature Reserve) and by V.N. Korotkov (Moscow State University, Moscow), the role of anthropogenic factors in forming the soils of forest zone by M.V. Bobrovsky (Institute of Physical, Chemical, Biological Problems of Soil Studies, Pushchino).
The conference encompassed the following fields:
– population biology, plant and animal ecology. The researchers presented population studies of ecosystems in Russia and neighbouring countries. The conference highlighted the actual situation of the spread of rare species of aboriginal flora and fauna, their distribution, population and nubmers. The influence of various natural and anthropogenic factors on living organisms has been stressed in reports. The researchers presented the prognostic dynamics of population of definite species under the influence of various natural and anthropogenic factors. The participants stressed the significance of population-ontogenic approach in studying the biology of species and the studies of forest cover.
I.V. Shivtsova and L.A. Zhukova (Mari State University, Yoshkar-Ola, Russia) defined major stages of population-ontogenetic approach in Russia and abroad, E.I. Kurchenko (Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow) emphasized the significance of this approach for plant taxonomy. T.Yu. Braslavskaya (Centre of Problems of Ecology and Forest Productivity Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) pointed out the perspectives of plant population biology approaches in studying forest cover. A.A. Notov (Tver State Universtiy, Tver) and L.A. Zhukova (Mari State University, Yoshkar-Ola) defined the main problems and research topics in studying polyvariety of biosystem development. N.P. Savinykh and S.V. Shabalkina (Vyatsk State University, Kirov) analyzed the forms of self-sustainment of plants of different biomorphs in periodical moistening conditions. N.G. Kuranova and A.V. Smirvnova (Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow) added to the questions of reproductive biology of Dianthus fischeri Spreng. O.I. Nedoseko (Arzamas Branch of Nizhny Novgorod State University, Arzamas) suggested the methodology of studying the crown architectonics through the study of boreal types of willows. M.S. Kulikovsky and his co-researchers (Institute of the Biology of Internal Waters at the Russian Academy of Sciences) studied the phylogenetic state of some type of diatomic algae on the basis of molecular-genetic methods. E.V. Zubkova and P.V. Frolov (Institute of Physical, Chemical, Biological Problems of Soil Studies at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino) specified and improved the developer of ontogenetic conditions for Vaccinium murtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea bushes (imitation grid model CAMPUS) for a more precise and easy forecasting of the impact of different parameters on the development of clones various in their morphological structure. N.G. Ulanova (Moscow State University, Moscow) and D.O. Logofet (Institute of Atmosphere Physics at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) suggested the improved methodology for evaluating the adaptivity degree of cenopopulations of clonal plants, describing the case study of Calamagrostis epigeios. M.V. Markov (Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow) added to the biomorphology, anatomy and population biology of two representatives of the clade Ranunculinae: Myosurus minimus иCeratocephala testiculata. N.V. Ivanova and M.P. Shashkov (Pushchino State Institute of Sciences, Pushchino) analyzed the databases of the distribution of rare lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in European Russia. M.V. Kostina and co-researchers (Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow) determined the biological characteristics and life strategy of sugar maple and black and balsam poplar – these types are widely used in urban greening.
A great number of research works was dedicated to the study of species ontogenesis: E.V. Ruchinskaya and A.V. Gornov (Centre of Problems of Ecology and Forest Productivity at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) studied the features of Iris aphylla L. ontogenesis in Bryansk region, E.K Komartseva (Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Novosibirsk ) studied the ontogenesis and structure of cenopopulations of Phlomis tuberosa L. in the south of Siberia, N.I. Gordeeva (Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Novosibirsk ) gave characteristic of the sex and ontogenetic structure of Dracocephalum nutans L. (Lamiaceae), as well as of population and eco-coenotic characteristics: S.V. Shabalkina (Vyatsk State University, Kirov) offered the eco-characteristic of flowering plants flora in the conditions of periodical moistening in Kirov region, E.L. Zheleznaya (State Timiryazev Biology Museum, Moscow) characterized the peculiartieis of population biology of rare species Cypripedium in Siberia and the Far East, A.V. Masterova and I.G. Krinitsyn (Kostroma State University, Kostroma) suggested the eco-coenotic characteristic of lily-of-the-valley habitats in sub-zones of southern taiga and sub-taiga, V.M. Vasyukov and L.V. Sidyakina (Institute of Ecology of the Volga Basin at the Russian Academy of Sciences) noted the phytocenotic role of Thymus zheguliensis (Lamiaceae) in rocky steppes of the Zhiguli Mountains, V.P. Lebedev and Yu.V. Vinogradova (Kostroma State Unviersity, Kostroma) gave characteristic of Trentepohliacenopopulation.
E.A. Artemieva and V.I. Selishchev (Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University, Ulyanovsk) described the landscape natural monument ‘Peony Field near Village Urusovka’ as a reserve of rare animal species in the Middle Volga (Ulyanovsk region).
I.V. Bashinsky (Institute of EcologyandEvolutionProblems. at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) presented the preliminary typology of beaver habitat in forest-steppe (case study ‘Privolzhskaya Forest-Steppe’). Yu.N. Kalinskin (Altai Nature Reserve, Gorno-Altaisk) analyzed the population dynamics parameter for the maral (Cervuselaphus) of Altai nature reserve. E.M. Firtas (Balashov Institute of Saratov State University, Balashov) analyzed the life forms of adult ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in sticky alder forest of Saratov region of the Khoyor river. T.V. Vasilchenko (Balashov Institute of Saratov State University, Balashov) studied the strucutre of the population of hard-windged communities living on the forest fringe of ‘Voroninsky’ nature reserve. A.A. Mickheikina (Centre of Healthcare and Epidemiology in Railway Transport Systems, Rtishchevo) and A.N. Volodchenko (Balashov Institute of Saratov State University, Balashov) analyzed the species diversity and the numbers dynamics of click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae) in the nature monument ‘Dyakov Forest’. I.V. Muraviev (Penza State University, Penza) and E.A. Artemieva (Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University, Ulyanovsk) studied the nests and egg-laying of the ‘yellow’ wagtail in the Volga region, Yu.B. Shveenkova (Privolzhskaya Forest-Steppe Nature Reserve, Penza) analyzed the vertical structure of the community of collembolan in chernozem. L.P. Lebyazhinskaya (Privolzhskaya Forest-Steppe Nature Reserve, Penza) presented the regularities of spatial organization of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in the forest fringe complexes of Ostrovtsovo forest-steppe of Privolzhskaya Forest-Steppe Nature Reserve. V.V. Osipov (Privolzhskaya Forest-Steppe Nature Reserve, Penza) analyzed the numbers of sanders Sander lucioperca in the Sura reservoir.
The studies of species diversity were detailed by the following researchers: S.V. Ivanova (School-gymnasium № 1, Kuznetsk) with co-researchers on the fish fauna and ecology in the Truev river in the Penza region, E.A. Sukholizova (State Veterinary and Phytosanitary Service in the Republic of Mordovia and the Penza region, Penza) on the results of the project ‘Nestling Birds of the European Part of Russia’ on the territory of the Penza region, V.A. Senkevich (Penza State University, Penza) on spatial and seasonal dynamics of zooplankton community of the Clear Ponds in the Penza region, I.V. Dyuzhaeva, V.V. Sergeeva (Samara State Aerospace University, Samara) on hortobiont complexes of phytophage insects of open biotopes in Samara region and hemipterous insects (Insecta, Heteroptera) in hortobiont insect complexes on the border of forest-steppe and steppe, E.V. Komarova and T.G. Stoiko (Penza State University, Penza) on communities of land mollusks in open spaces in the Republic of Mordovia.
– structure and dynamics of communities and ecosystems.
The researchers presented the overview of current vegetation layer in Eurasia. They highlighted the diversity of types of vegetation communities, their classification and dynamic tendences. T.G. Elumeeva (Moscow State University, Moscow) discussed the structure and dynamics of upland meadows in Teberda Nature Reserve under the condition of prolonged absence of dominating species, L.E. Borisova (‘Voronino’ Nature Reserve) studied the vegetation layer in flow-through channel lakes in the Vorona river valley, as seen in Ramza lake, A.A. Kaplevsky and N.G.Ulanova (Moscow State University, Moscow) examined grass and bush layer of spruce grove after the death of the forest stand in the area of eight-toothed bark beetle contamination, V.K. Antipny and S.I. Grabovik (Institute of Biology of Karel Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Petrozavoksk) researched vegetation layer in ecotone zones of swamp regions (case study of swamps in Karelia), V.V. Kiseleva (NationalPark‘Losyny Ostrov’, Moscow) studied the changes of composition and vertical structur of phytocenosis in pine species without forestry procedures.
The researchers determined the characteristic featurs of biocenosis of different plants and the influence of various environmental factors on their diversity, species composition, structure and productivity. The researchers analyzed the transformation of plant communities under the influence of various anthropogenic impacts. P.Ya. Grabarnik (Institute of Physical, Chemical, Biological Problems of Soil Studies at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino) and A.A. Aleinikov (Centre of Problems of Ecology and Forest Productivity at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) discussed the features of statistical analysis of the structural characterization of forest stand with the help of distributing tree diameters. I.V. Volkov (Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk) analyzes spatial and climatic regularities of the structural change in high-mounatin phytosystems. S.V. Loiko (Tomsk State University, Tomsk) with co-researchers analyzed the non-climatic reasons of low productivity in tundra ecosystems. L.G. Khanina (Institute of Mathematical Problems in Biology, branch of the Institute of Applied Mathematics at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino) with co-researchers evaluated the species diversity of plants at different spatial levels. G.I. Istigechev (Tomsk State University, Tomsk) and his co-researchers gave characterisitcs of windbreaks in taiga of different succession stages in the south-east of West Siberia. A.V. Nemchinova (Association ‘National Working Group on Voluntary Forest Certification in Russia’, Moscow) analyzed the dynamic tendencies of forest reconstruction in the core of the ‘Kologriv Forest’ nature reserve (sub-zone of south taiga). N.G. Kadetov (Moscow State University, Moscow) with co-authors described the spatial strucutr of after-fire vegetation cover in Kerzhensk nature reserve as a result of five-year study. T.Yu. Minaeva (Institute of Forest Studies at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow region) evaluates the role of structural dynamics of vascular plants in forming the mosaics of vegetation layer in upland swamps. D.M. Mirin and Yu.A. Suvorova (St.Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg) describe the regeneration of broad-leaf species in forest openings in upland oak groves and ravine forests (forest-steppe, ‘Belogorie’ nature reserve). A.N. Panyukov (Institute of Biology in Komi Research Centre of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar) gave characteristics of vegetation and flora of swamped territories in eastern part of Bolschesemelskaya-Tundra. A.V. Gorvnov (Centre of Problems of Ecology and Forest Productivity at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) with co-researchers studied the degradation typs of meadow-steppoe communities oin ‘Melovitskie sklony’ natural monument in Bryansk region. A.A. Semikolennykh (Smolensk Lakes National Park, Smolensk) with co-researchers determined the influence of the growth of karst on the rehabilitation of forest-forming species in Arkhangelsk region and reasons for meadows development. A.N. Saltykov and A.V. Mishchenko (Smolenskoye Poozerye National Park, Smolensk) described the bio-group settlement of pine undergrowth during natural rehabilitation as one of the strategies for restoration and increase of population space of near steppe groves. O.V. Litvinenko (Kherson Academy of Continuing Education, Kherson) with co-researchers suggest the use of bio-morphological approaches for evaluating the degree of species and ecosystems resistance to different environmental changes, including the anthropogenic ones.
– historical ecology. The researchers stressed the significance of historical ecology in solving current problems of nature preservation and management. They evaluated the anthropogenic role in changing the hydrology regime of territories, the loss of biodiversity, decrease in productivity and other ecosystemic chagnes at different stages of the Holocene.
M.V. Bobrovsky (Institute of Physical, Chemical, Biological Problems of Soil Studies at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino) showed the possiblity of using the ecosystem approach to reconstruct the history of ecosystems. T.V. Sapelko (Institute of Lake Studies at the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg) analyzed the dynamics of lake ecosystems in forest and steppe zones in the Holocene as their prototype of future development. S.N. Artemova (Penza State University, Penza) with co-researchers followed the landscapes evolution within the Penza region. D.S. Ikonnikov (Penza State University, Penza) attempted to create the periodization of the history of medieval land farming in Upper Sura and Mokhan areas as the basis for determining the characteristics of region’s natural geography. D.M. Kuzmina (Tomsk State University, Tomsk) with co-researchers analyzed the biogene morhphons in illuvial ferritic podzol soils of northern taiga in West Siberia, suggested criteri of their definition and origin.
The following researchers studied the plant reconstruction on the basis of paleobotanic data: T.Yu. Novenko (Moscow State University, Moscow) with co-researchers conducted the reconstruction of vegetation changes on the southern border of broad-leaf forests of East-European Plain in the Holocene, A.N. Tsyganova (Penza State University, Penza) with co-authors conducted the reconstruction of after-fire succession of swamp ecosystems.
– methods and results of phytogeneous field studies. The researchers continue to develop A.A.Uranov’s idea of ‘phytogeneous field’. They present the results of studying phytogeneous fields of plants of different life forms.
E.V. Chernyaeva and V.P. Viktorov (Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow) analyzed the history of establishing the term ‘phytogeneous field’ and current trends in the area of studying different plant species phytogeneous fields. They stressed that the studies of phytogeneous fields are still at the stage of active accumulation of data. P.V. Ozersky (Russian State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg) presented the report of some formalization of the functional model of eco-niche, using some ideas of A.A. Uranov. A.A. Goncharov (Institute of Ecology and Evolution Problems at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) with co-researchers analyzed the influence of Georgian oak phytogeneous field on the structure of ground invertebrates population. V.P. Viktorov (Moscow State Pedagogical Unviersity, Moscow) with co-authors suggested the model for determining the promising species of perennial plants for creating stable ground cover in phytogeneous fields of trees.
– evaluation, preservation and restoration of biodiversity.
The researchers evaluate the current state of vegetation cover of special protected natural areas in Eurasia. L.P. Parshutina (Komarov Botanicasl Institute at the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersbutg) defined the significance of geo-botanic researtch for steppe studies. G.V. Shlyakhtin (Saratov National Research University, Saratov) analyzed the regional network of special protected natural areas in Saratov region. I.N. Safronova (Komarov Botanicasl Institute at the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersbutg) characterized the current state of vegetation layer in Borgin-Baskunchak Nature Reserve. G.F. Suleimanova (‘Khvalynsky’ National Park, Khvalynsk) showed the results of studying communities with Paeoniatenuifolia on the territory of Khvalynsky’ National Park. I.V. Volkov (Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk) presented the hypothesis on the compensation of species diversity of plant communities by bio-morphological one during extreme transformation of the habitat. M.V. Gornova (Centre of Problems of Ecology and Forest Productivity at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) and O.I. Evstigneev (State Biosphere Reserve ‘Bryansk Forest’) analyzed the current state of tallgrass spruce groves in Bryansk forests. S.G. Kudrin (Khingan Nature Reserve) evaluated the situation and defined the tendencies of grass plant communities transformations in Khingan Nature Reserve.
The authors highlight the diversity of types of plant communities, discuss their protection and restoration of natural biodiversity. They stress the fact, that prolonged protective mode leads to the transformation of communities under protection and does not contribute to the preservation of their species diversity.
N.P. Savinykh and O.N. Perstoronina (Vyatswk State University, Kirov) presented the developed complex of measures on forestry procedures aimed at creating favourable conditions for preserving rare and disappearing species of plants and animals on the territory of ‘Medvezhy Bor’ natural monument. V.M. Makeeva and A.V. Smurov (Museum of Earth Studied and Ecology Centre at the Moscow State University, Moscow) suggested the new eco-genetic theory and strategy of protecting the biodiversity of anthropogenic ecosystems that includes not only the passive territory protection, but active rehabilitation of gene pool of populations. T.V. Elisafenko and O.V. Dorogina (Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Novosibirsk ) discussed the perspectives of restoring natural populations of rare and disappearing plant species on the territory of Siberia. V.P. Viktorov (Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow) with co-researchers discussed rare species of genus Campanula L. and their protection. E.V. Pismarkina (Botanical Garden of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg) with co-authors characterized rare plants on carbonated exposures of the right bank of the Sura river in Karsunsk district in Ulyanovsk region. O.A. Starodub (Balashovo Institute of Saratov State University, Balashov) with co-authors presented the results of studying rare and medicinal plants of natural monument ‘Hygrophyte Refugium’. A.A. Efimova and I.G. Krinitsyn (Kostroma State University, Kostroma) published their first results of classifying the flora of vascular plant species of Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve. E.A. Podolyan (Tver State University, Tver) presented her first result of the studies of chemical properties of soils after the introduction of some species of genus Rhododendron L. in the botanical garden at Tver State University. A.P. Geraskina (Smolensk State Medical Unviersity, Smolensk) assesed the populations of earthworms (Lumbricidae) of Teberda Nature Reserve.
N.V. Ivanova with co-authors, Institute of Physical, Chemical, Biological Problems of Soil Studiesnstitute of Mathematical Problems in Biology, branch of the Institute of Applied Mathematics at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino) earthworms (M.P. Shashkov with co-authors, Institute of Physical, Chemical, Biological Problems of Soil Studies at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino).
– ecology and biology education.
The researches stressed the role of current ecology concepts of biosystems in building the quality biology education and world views.
V.V. Anikin (Saratov National Research University, Saratov) with co-researchers presented the developed video-course ‘Strategy and Tactics of Stable Development of Ecosystems’. V.P. Viktorov (Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow) with co-researchers described the features of biology education in narrow-specialization schools. G.V. Kuroedova (Secondary School N20, Penza) suggested the development of moral values through ecological education.
The authors discussed the forms and methods of the interaction between universities and schools in the general education system.
N.V. Anisimova (Penza State University, Penza) with co-authors reasoned the use of variable statistics methods when processing the results of schoolchildren’s ecology studies. L.A. Zhigulina (Finance and Economy School-Lyceum N29, Penza) and N.V. Filatova (Secondary School N59, Penza) presented the projects and research works of schoolchildren on geography regional studies. A.G. Morunov (Centre of Child Creativity, Serdobsk) suggest to consider ecology research conducted by schoolchildren as a condition for developing creativity and talent. T.V. Perevoznikova (Saratov National Research University, Saratov) presents the forms and methods of school-university interection on the basis of the experience accumulated at Biology Faculty at Saratov University. The continuity in ecological education in the school-university system was discussed in the studies by V.M. Shipulin (School-Lyceum N7, Voronezh) and O.N. Shchepilova (Voronezh State University, Voronezh).
The researchers stress the need to develop eco-conscious and responsible attitudes by schoolchildren and youth and suggest the combination of class system and extra-curricula work in the form of trips and visits of eco character. S.V. Kozyreva and G.O. Osmanova (Mari State University, Yoshkar-Ola) provide the example of visits to population-ontogenetic museum at Mari State University; M.V. Kulikova (State Biology Museum, Moscow) – to the Biology Institute with organized exhibitions in major biology subjects; O.N. Kulikova (Pleshcheevo Lake National Part, Pereslavl-Zalessky) – in dendrology garden; O.I. Litvinenko (Kherson Academy of Continuing Education, Kherson) presented the programme of nature learning trips on the basis of regional natural preservation objects.
Other educational issues discussed by researchers: forming ecological competence of schoolchidlren in the current system of biology education by L.N. Savina (Penza State University, Penza), implemenging competence approach in teaching botany by S.K. Pyatunina (Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow) and co-researhcers; developing information competence of schoolchildren in a biology class by Yu.V. Leikina (Penza State University, Penza).
The participants of the school-conference analyzed the following issues:
- The evaluation of theories of biosystems ecology in solving the global problems of restoring the major ecosystemic functions of the biosphere: optimizing the climatic and hydrological regime, restoring the soil productivity and the biodiversity.
- The significance of current concepts of historical ecology in finding the underlying reasons of the Earth’s living layer condition and the development of bio-ecogical reconstruction of the living layer of the biosphere.
- Legacy and future perspectives of population-ontogenetic studies developed by the research school of A.A.Uranov and T.A.Rabotnov as the basis for preservation and restoration of natural biodiversity of different climatic zones in Russia.
- Summing up the current research experience in the sphere of natural diversity and main ecosystemic functions of the forests around the world.
- Practice of restoration of natural diversity in steppes and forest steppes of Russia.
Analysis of presented at the conference theoretical achievements and practical results on preservation and restoratino of natural functions at different levels of living layer organization proves ample potential of Russian researchers in the ecology of biosystems, however, this potential is not used for solving the practical problems of nature preservation and management.
Starting from the 30s of the 20th century Russian biologists and ecologists sucessfully developed the methodology and techniques of studying the Earth’s living layer at observation stations equipped with modern research facilities and spanning all natural diversity of the country. Those studies were continually suported by the Russian Academy of Sciences and the universities specializing in biology, forestry and agriculture. As a result of these activities, a lot of research findings were implemented into the practice of forestry and agriculture.
Yet, starting from the mid-80s and 90-s of the previous century, funding of the majority of these observation stations ceased and they stopped their activities. Simultaneously, a number of research institutes in forestry and agriculture were dissolved, which determined the underdevelopment of these applied research fields.
The conference participants came to the agreement that modern methods of nature management do not solve the problem of providing the optimal climate, hydrological and temperature modes and high level of biodiversity and productivity of natural ecosystems, at the levels of Russia’s regions and the country as a whole.
To solve these problems, the RF government has approved the priority directions in research and engineering. These include two separate problems – ‘Rational Nature Management’ and ‘Life Sciences’, which are connected with the study and preservation of the environment, development of nature use regimes and the technologies of managing the living nature. ‘We should think about the introduction of fundamentally new nature-like technologies that do not harm the environment but act in harmony with it and will allow to restore the balance between the biosphere and the technosphere’ (V.V. Putin. from his speech at the UN session on 28.09.2015). In this way the necessity to find deeper knowledge of nature is accepted as a fundamental basis of nature management.
At the same time, significant theoretical advnaces in the ecology of biostystems, achieved both by Russian and world scientists, allow to develop and implement the conceptually new technologies of nature management, which are aimed at the production in unity with the support and restoration of biosphere ecosystemic functions. To achieve the desired aims, it is necessary to restore the system of observation stations in Russia, with advanced equipment and necesssary conditions for the work of qualified specialists.
There is no doubt that finding and implementing the advanced methods of analysis of the living layer of the Earth requires the high-quality education and training of young specialists. However, current education in biology and ecology in Russian universities and schools does not cope with the designated tasks.
The conference participants developed and approved the conference resolution.
The conference resolves to:
- Recommend the environmental organisations and all researhcers to promote various approaches and methods of studying ecosystems and modelling their natural state, methods of reconstructing major ecosystemic functions.
- Draw the attention of the management of special protected natural areas on the need to conduct special events so as to provide optimal conditions for the preservation of natural objects and complexes. Prolonged protective mode leads to the transformation of communities under protection and does not contribute to the preservation of their species diversity.
- Apply to the Ministry of Education and Science of the RF with the suggestions:
3.1. To develop programmes on studying current theories in ecology and biology,
3.2. To restore full-feature research practical trainings that include laboratroy training as well as training in main types of natural ecosystems: forest, steppe, desert, etc.;
- Apply to the Russian Academy of Sciences with urgent request to resture the studies on the ecology of biosystems in Russia.
- Apply to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the RF with the request to restore the system of observation stations in Russia, with advanced equipment and necesssary conditions for the work of qualified specialists.
The conference expresses sincere gratitude to Penza State University for excellent conference management and arrangement, and to the Russian Foundation for Basic Research for the financial support.